Ideas to action: independent research for global prosperity
Driving Digital Transformation – Learning the Lessons from Attempts to Do So
April 06, 2023
Fourth industrial revolution rhetoric aside, many developing countries are still struggling to take full advantage of digital technology. This was one of the final challenges that Benno Ndulu—former governor of the Reserve Bank of Tanzania, visiting scholar at Oxford, and a non-resident fellow at CG...
Data Localization—a Hidden Tax on the Poor
March 27, 2023
Technology facilitates the rapid flow of vast quantities of data across the world. These cross-border flows have the potential to unlock substantial benefits for development and poverty reduction. Yet, many policymakers worry about the issues this raises, such as data protection and security, nation...
Can Digital Transfers Empower Mothers? The Case of Bangladesh’s Primary Education Supplement Program (PESP)
February 10, 2023
Historically, social assistance payments were often distributed in cash at designated payment points—government offices, community meetings, or schools. More recently, payments have increasingly been distributed digitally, through bank accounts or mobile wallets.
Can Digital G2P Payments Increase Financial Inclusion and Empower Women? Evidence from PESP in Bangladesh
February 10, 2023
Bangladesh’s Primary Education Stipend Program provides stipends for 13 million primary schoolchildren to 10 million mothers. In 2017 the method of payment changed from cash to mobile money. This study considers the experience of the mothers with the shift to mobile money, and to the change in payme...
Does Choice Empower G2P Recipients? Insights from Kenya’s Inua Jamii Program
January 19, 2023
Kenya has become a poster child for digitally driven development. Known as “Silicon Savannah,” the country has a multi-billion-dollar tech industry that routinely produces startups. Among its most prominent successes is M-Pesa. Launched in 2007, the mobile wallet service revolutionized how Kenyans t...
Models of Social Payments through Inua Jamii
January 19, 2023
This study surveys Kenya's electronic payment system for social benefits, Inua Jamii, from the perspective of recipients, including their views on convenience and the benefits from competition. It also considers whether these digital G2P payments programs have increased financial inclusion more gene...
CGD and Support to the Field of Biometric Identification for Development
November 10, 2022
This case study examines the role CGD has played in that shift. It assesses CGD’s impact and influence on identification for development as a coherent and unified development field, as opposed to a collection of isolated country-level initiatives.
Measuring Women’s Economic Empowerment in Payment Projects: A Short Module to Complement Context-Specific Measures
September 29, 2022
This note provides actionable advice on measurement for project teams working on digital government-to-person projects, as well as practitioners and researchers working on cash transfer payments and financial inclusion more broadly. It provides short measures focused on key outcomes related to women...
Realizing Gender-Responsive ID Systems: A Proposed Framework for Policymakers
June 29, 2022
The article proposes a simple decision framework for policymakers who seek to institute gender-responsive ID systems. It highlights key questions that should be asked from the outset of system design, drawing upon examples of promising approaches that can be scaled in existing contexts or considered...
Can Digital G2P Transfers Drive Financial Inclusion and Digital Payments? Evidence from India
June 09, 2022
Does channeling government-to-person (G2P) payments through bank accounts encourage financial inclusion and use? This paper explores the factors that have driven the adoption of digital payments in India by beneficiaries of PMGKY, the large-scale COVID-19 relief program launched in May 2020.