South Africa’s economy has underperformed during the past decade. The COVID‑19 crisis has weakened an already fragile economy, hobbled by endemic power rationing. Incomes have been declining, unemployment remains high, at around 35% and income inequality is considered to be the highest in the world. As Executive Director of the Center for Development and Enterprise (CDE), Ann Bernstein has been involved in discussions with a wide range of South African and international policymakers, corporate leaders and policy experts. She will present an overview and respond to questions. The conversation will be introduced by Gyude Moore, Senior Policy Fellow at the Center, with initial response and questions from Alan Gelb, Senior Fellow.