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From 2006 until 2010, the HIV/AIDS Monitor focused on the performance of three HIV/AIDS donor programs—the U.S. government's President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (The Global Fund), and the World Bank's Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP). The Center for Global Development’s HIV/AIDS Monitor team, led by Nandini Oomman examined key issues in the design, delivery and management of these donor programs, and provided timely analyses to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of each initiative.
Global Level and Country-based reports on the HIV/AIDS programs, produced in collaboration with partners on the ground in Mozambique, Uganda and Zambia, provided evidence-based policy recommendations to the top donors. Over the course of the initiative, with ongoing research and active outreach of its findings, the Monitor team accomplished the following at the global and country level:
Influenced PEPFAR and other donor policies and practices
CGD played an important role in informing and shaping the policies of the three donors on an ongoing basis over the last four years. The HIV/AIDS Monitor's recommendations are now reflected in donor current strategies and actions. For example:
The World Bank's Agenda for Action subsequently incorporated a focus on building governments' financial management capacity based on the recommendation that the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP) should focus on improving health information systems.
The Global Fund changed its reporting requirements for recipients from every 3 months to every 6 months following this recommendation from the HIV/AIDS Monitor report on performance-based funding.
Increased PEPFAR’s Transparency and Release of Data
An ongoing push throughout the Monitor research recommendations has been the importance of accurate, transparent and readily available data to inform programming at the donor and country level. Our 2008 report, Numbers Behind the Stories, which analyzed newly available PEPFAR data not otherwise public, stressed the importance of making funding data widely available. Our report argues that knowledge of official data on obligations to recipients of the funds improves transparency and allows for accurate analyses of its cost-effectiveness. Knowledge from this report, as well as our other reports that looked more specifically at issues surrounding the availability of programmatic data, informed Nandini Oomman’s memo to President Obama encouraging him to allow for the more public release of PEPFAR data. Evidence from updated PEPFAR policies shows that the U.S. government is heeding this advice—more data on financial obligations by the U.S. Government to specific countries are being released on the website (they were previously redacted) and PEPFAR’s Five-Year Strategy 2009-2014 cites "working to expand publicly available data" as a key initiative in its next five years, though types of data (financial, programmatic, etc.) have yet to be specified.
Informed Congressional Oversight of PEPFAR’s bilateral and multilateral global AIDS Funding
The HIV/AIDS Monitor team provided senior Congressional staff (Democrat and Republican) with study findings and recommendations to inform the creation of new policies (such as reauthorization of PEPFAR), new strategies (PEPFAR II) and new U.S.G global health initiatives (U.S. Global Health Initiative), and monitor the progress of current policies as legislated. In addition, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) team tasked by Congress with oversight of PEPFAR routinely consulted CGD experts on Monitor findings to frame questions for their studies and to use our research results as additional evidence in their reports. In the words of a GAO staff person, “The HIV/AIDS Monitor publications helped us understand the issues surrounding PEPFAR implementation…which in turn helped us define the scope of our research” The Institute of Medicine (IOM) team charged by Congress with the evaluation of PEPFAR II also consulted with the HIV/AIDS Monitor team in preparing background information for the Committee that will plan and implement the evaluation.
Increased the visibility of AIDS funding and global health as a key aid effectiveness issue at the global and country level
The HIV/AIDS Monitor built a brand on the topic of aid effectiveness for AIDS and Global Health funding at the global and country level. By documenting donor policies and practices and sharing these widely with different audiences in the U.S. and globally, the HIV/AIDS Monitor has raised the importance of this topic through several different channels such as publications, events, and extensive use of the World Wide Web. For example, at the global level, a CGD background report shed light on the workings of, and challenges to, antiretroviral supply chains for developing countries—and triggered supply-chain stakeholders to increase the efficiency of the Global Supply Chain and another CGD background report contributed to the debate about increasing aid effectiveness by describing how the three donors take program performance into consideration when making final decisions about funding . At the country level, such as in Zambia, CGD’s report, Following the Funding for HIV/AIDS, was reported (by a donor official) to have influenced the design and process of tracking the HIV/AIDS funds within the National Health Accounts in the Ministry of Health and in the drafting of the International Health Partnership position paper of MOH. In Uganda, the results of the gender theme were presented in parliament and at the health sector review meeting at the invitation of the Director General. A senior official in the MOH reported that lessons learnt from the HIV/AIDS Monitor have influenced their dialogues with donors.
Today, following many of the HIV/AIDS Monitor's recommendations, bilateral and multilateral donors continue to support the HIV/AIDS response in the developing world, moving away from a vertical disease approach to one that focuses on strengthening a country’s capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS as part of a broader set of global health priorities.
The Center for Global Development continues to track ongoing policy changes related to the HIV/AIDS Monitor team's findings and follows the effectiveness of global health development assistance through its research, blogs and global health policy newsletter that is published monthly.
On World AIDS Day in 2003, WHO and UNAIDS launched a campaign called the “3 by 5 initiative,” with the objective to “treat three million people with HIV by 2005.” At that time, AIDS treatment was still prohibitively expensive for poor countries, where only a few thousand people had access to treatment. Thanks to President Bush’s creation of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) program that same year, the number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) began to rise dramatically. While the total number of people on ART reached only one million in 2005, the objective to reach three million people was attained in 2007, and the numbers have continued to climb. The numbers have now surpassed 11 million in low- and middle-income countries and 13 million worldwide. (See bottom trend line in figure 1.)
For the past decade, global AIDS donors have responded to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa as an emergency and have mobilized health workers from weak and understaffed workforces. They must begin to address the long-term problems underlying the shortages and the effects of their efforts on the health workforce more broadly.
This report focuses on the workforce strengthening strategies of three of the major HIV/AIDS donors—the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund), and the World Bank’s Africa Multi-country HIV/AIDS Program (the MAP)—and identifies six tasks for donors, national governments, and country stakeholders to undertake to reverse the severe shortage of skilled, motivated, and productive health workers.
U.S. global AIDS spending is helping to prolong the lives of more than a million people, yet this success contains the seeds of a future crisis. Escalating treatment costs coupled with neglected prevention measures mean that AIDS spending is growing so rapidly that it threatens to squeeze out U.S. spending on other global health needs, even to the point of consuming half of the entire U.S. foreign assistance budget by 2016. Mead Over argues that AIDS treatment spending could quickly become a global entitlement since withdrawing funding for life-saving drugs would mean death for the beneficiaries. He offers suggestions for avoiding a ballooning AIDS treatment entitlement, including greatly stepped-up prevention efforts.
Millions Saved: Proven Success in Global Health details 17 cases in which large-scale efforts to improve health in developing countries have succeeded, saving millions of lives and preserving the livelihoods and social fabric of entire communities.
This Brief is based on the CGD book Millions Saved: Proven Successes in Global Health. The book book features 17 success stories. These cases describe some large-scale efforts to improve health in developing countries that have succeeded - saving millions of lives and preserving the livelihoods and social fabric of entire communities.
Zimbabwe has experienced a precipitous collapse in its economy over the past five years. The government blames its economic problems on external forces and drought. We assess these claims, but find that the economic crisis has cost the government far more in key budget resources than has the donor pullout. We show that low rainfall cannot account for the shock either. This leaves economic misrule as the only plausible cause of Zimbabwe’s economic regression, the decline in welfare, and unnecessary deaths of its children.
Making Markets for Vaccines: Ideas to Action presents the proposal from theory to practice, by showing how a commitment can be consistent with ordinary legal and budgetary principles. A draft contract term sheet is included, highlighting the key elements of a credible guarantee.
New medicines are usually financed by a mixture of public funding by governments, philanthropic giving, and investment by private firms. Private investment is especially important in paying for and managing the later stages of clinical trials, regulatory approval, and investment in manufacturing capacity. But for diseases that mainly affect people in developing countries, the prospective sales market is tiny—and not sufficient to justify commercially the large scale investment that is needed to develop new products.
An advance market commitment to accelerate the development of vaccines for diseases concentrated in developing countries, donors could make a binding commitment to pay for a desired vaccine if and when it is developed. This advance market commitment would mean firms could invest in finding a vaccine with the confidence that if they succeed there would be a market for the product.