Most oxygen disasters across India could have been avoided. This blog describes the current model of medical oxygen supply in India, outlines the response to the oxygen crises, including the problem of severe oxygen shortages in some Indian states, and provides recommendations on how India could prevent the next crisis stemming from shortages in oxygen.
CGD Policy Blogs
Shock to the System: Understanding Global Medical Supply, Shortages in COVID-19 Crisis, and How to Prepare for Future Disruptions
Since March of 2020, COVID-19 changed most aspects of life as we knew it, from our personal day-to-day activities to the systems, processes, and structures that keep the global economy interconnected and moving. This included pharmaceutical production and distribution, where anecdotal evidence suggested production problems, export bans, and trade disruption could significantly impact vital medicines access in low- and middle-income countries.
A lot of recent discussions focus on how to expand COVID-19 vaccine manufacturing capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The conversations highlight the importance of technology transfer and the capability of the tech transfer receiving sites (the facilities in these countries that would then produce vaccines locally), including having specialized equipment and personnel.
Dear President Biden and Congress: Time for US to Lead Response to the Growing COVID-19 Global Vaccine Crisis
Today we joined colleagues from CSIS, Duke University, and the COVID Collective in an open letter to the Biden Administration and US Congress with a clear message: to hasten the end of the COVID-19 global pandemic, American leadership is required to ensure universal global access to high-quality and safe vaccines, support rapid vaccine distribution and administration, and build a sustainable global network of vaccine manufacturing capacity. Vaccines offer an exit route out of the pandemic – but only if they reach a critical mass of people in need across continents, socioeconomic strata, and marginalized populations.
India’s second COVID-19 wave has been explosive, reaching world record totals of over 300,000 daily officially reported cases. The true number is likely to be much higher, with a large number of cases missed as indicated by the delays in testing and rapidly rising positivity rates - currently one in every four people tested are positive for COVID-19 across India. Leading models estimate that there could be over 1 million cases per day. The health service has collapsed, with queues of ambulances parked outside full hospitals, oxygen and drug shortages in multiple states, and life-saving non-COVID services interrupted.
It is easy to critique humanitarian organizations for inefficiencies and other flaws in their coordination functions. But deeper examination of issues such as media exposure and incentives to coordinate makes it clearer that, given their current funding model, their actions may be rational institutional behavior.
Safe and efficacious vaccines are our best tools for defeating COVID-19. An unprecedented research and development effort has led to 12 vaccines with full or limited use emergency authorizations globally, but vaccinating everyone in the world as quickly as possible will require additional production capacity. Currently, there is not enough manufacturing capacity globally to accelerated immunization around the world in the next six months.
Expanding Health Product Manufacturing in Africa: Ideas for Development Finance Institutions, Procurers, and Policymakers
In October 2020, the Center for Global Development—in partnership with African Union Development Agency-NEPAD (AUDA-NEPAD), UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), and the African Leaders Malaria Alliance—hosted a high-level roundtable on regional health product manufacturing in Africa. This blog is based on the authors’ reflections of the roundtable.
Five key operational levers and choices determine how fast countries are able to roll out the COVID-19 vaccine. Ideally, someone at the national level makes these decisions, but this hasn’t always been easy in multi-level government systems.
Today we launch an interactive tool that analyses the COVID-19 vaccine portfolio, and generates estimates about the timelines for the vaccines in the portfolio.